What is atomic number?
atomic number An atom may be visualized as a miniature solar system, with a large central nucleus orbited by small electrons. The bonding capacity of an atom is determined by the electrons. For example, atoms that in their normal state have one electron are hydrogen atoms and will readily (and sometimes violently) bond with oxygen. This bonding capacity of hydrogen was the cause of the explosion of the airship Hindenburg in 1937. Atoms that in their normal state have two electrons are helium atoms, which will not bond with oxygen and would have been a better choice for filling the Hindenburg.
We can pursue the question back one step further: What determines the number of electrons? The number of protons in the nucleus of the atom. Here, the analogy between an atom and the solar system breaks down. The force that holds the planets in their orbits is the gravitational attraction between the planets and the sun. However, in an atom what holds the electrons in their orbit is the electrical attraction between the electrons and the protons in the nucleus. The basic rule is that like charges repel and opposite charges attract. Although a proton has more mass than an electron, they both have the same amount of electrical charge, but opposite in kind. Scientists have designated electrons as having a negative charge and protonsas having a positive charge. One positive proton can hold one negative electron in orbit. Thus, an atom with one proton in its nucleus normally will have one electron in orbit (and be labeled a hydrogen atom); an atom with ninety-four protons in its nucleus will normally have ninety-four electrons orbiting it (and be labeled a plutonium atom).
The number of protons in a nucleus is called the atomic number and always equals the number of electrons in orbit about that nucleus (in a nonionized atom). Thus, all atoms that have the same number of protons–the atomic number–are atoms of the same element.